CCR Resolutions Database

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Res.: 35 , Jun 1994
  1. The CCR has produced a document entitled Refugee Detention in Canada, dated May 24, 1994, describing the current state of detention practices in Canada;
  2. The CCR and its member organizations have a collective experience of serious abuses and arbitrariness in arrest and detention practices since the adoption of law C-86;
  3. The practice of administrative detention under the Immigration Act violates article 9 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and several international human rights treaties that Canada has signed;
  4. The detention of people for removal in jails with common criminals or people being held for trial violates Canada's international obligations;
  5. There is an urgent need to reform the current rules and practices concerning grounds and powers of detention, including the necessity of legislative amendment, to prevent abuse of individuals' rights. Alternatives should be sought so that detention is used only when consistent with Charter of Rights and Freedom;
  6. Immigration officials at Canadian airports and entry points to Canada have greatly declined in civility and humanity in the treatment of visitors and foreign nationals seeking to come into this country since the adoption of Bill C-86;
  7. An exaggerated level of suspicion and scepticism is being shown to visitors to this country and this is harming the international image of this country;
  8. Minimal international standards for arrest and detention as well as conditions of detention have been adopted by the United Nations;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Endorse the May 1994 report on detention as its official paper on detention;
  2. Condemn the systematic violation of article 9 of the Canadian Charter and our international obligations;
  3. Urge the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to establish clear rules consistent with the Charter to delineate grounds for detention;
  4. Urgently demand the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to establish a mechanism for sanctions and accountability for immigration officials who abuse the rights of non-citizens and to study the possibility of an independent ombudsman for complaints about immigration practices;
  5. Demand that a code of ethics be established for immigration officials which stresses the need for normal courtesy and respect for physical conditions for visitors, as well as emphasizing a non-discriminatory attitude towards those coming to this country;
  6. Contact provincial tourism ministers to make them aware of the treatment that visitors to this country are subjected to at the current time;
  7. Invite the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention of the United Nations Human Rights Commission to visit Canada on a fact-finding visit to investigate the conformity of Canadian practices with international standards of behaviour;
  8. Advocate to the Minister that, while awaiting legislative amendments:
    1. Interpreters must be more quickly available at points of entry. No one should be detained simply because an interpreter cannot be found in time;
    2. A citizens advocates mechanism should be established in order to guard against abuse by self-contained administrative tribunals;
    3. The Department should facilitate access to review sessions to advocates willing to accompany detainees;
    4. A mechanism should be established for publishing and making available to counsel noteworthy decisions rendered by adjudicators;
    5. Maximum periods of detention should be established (no more than 4 months), except in cases where there is serious reason to believe the person poses a security risk or risk to the public. At the very least, the 4 month mark should trigger a special review with counsel, if necessary, funded by the federal government to actively seek solutions other than detention. A community advocate should also be present, if desired by the detainee;
    6. Detainees awaiting removal should be released, if the removal cannot be effected in the immediate future, as long as the person is not a security risk;
    7. Regulations establishing standards for detention centre conditions, rights and treatment of detainees and conditions for transfers to jail should be adopted. These regulations should be drawn up in consultation with the NGO sector;
    8. Detainees exhibiting signs of psychological stress should be given access to appropriate medical personnel immediately. Known or suspected survivors of torture should be referred to specialists. Reports of medical personnel should be taken into consideration in all decisions concerning the person's continued detention;
    9. Suicide attempts must be treated with the seriousness such an act merits. Relevant legislation should be reviewed and medical experts consulted to ensure that appropriate procedures are established and followed;
    10. Adequate medical care should be made available to all detainees in a timely manner. Special attention should be given to the medical needs of pregnant women;
    11. NGO's should be invited to participate in the training of personnel at detention centres, so as to increase sensitivity to the rights and needs of detainees;
    12. An independent review mechanism should be set up to oversee conditions of detention;
    13. In cases of detention in jails, detainees who have not been accused of a criminal offence should be separated from the general prison community. Special efforts should be made to expedite the case and to ensure that the detainee has access to counselling and community advocates;
    14. Minimum standards for outdoor exercise facilities should be established. There should be more than a small concrete courtyard;
    15. Airport detention facilities should be improved. Comfortable chairs should be provided. The specific needs of children should also be considered with special reference to the UN Convention on the Rights of Child. Food and drink should be made easily available;
    16. All detainees should be provided with an information sheet that clearly outlines their rights and obligations. The information sheet should be translated into as many languages as possible;
    17. All detainees should be provided with a list of organizations that might provide assistance;
    18. There should be opportunity for NGO representatives to meet with regional immigration officials at regular intervals;
    19. Staff cuts should not be made at the expense of the client. Staff needs should be regularly evaluated and reassignments immediately made if necessary;
    20. In seeking to increase the capacity of NGOs to anticipate and respond to the needs of incoming refugee claimants, the department should keep records of gender, age, and country of origin. These statistics would also permit the department to more effectively anticipate changes that might be required at detention facilities;
    21. Access to chaplaincy on a faith-appropriate basis should be provided.
Res.: 10 , Jun 1994
  1. Community-based organizations across the country engage in research activities around the issues of immigrant and refugee services;
  2. There is a severe lack in funding these research activities at the grass roots level;
  3. Funders usually contract out research on immigrant and refugee services delivery to private consultants and academics;
  4. Research results are in consequence inadequate and not pertinent to the real needs of immigrant/refugee and ethnocultural communities across Canada;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Call upon all funders and particularly the federal government to recognize the value of research activities carried out by community-based immigrant and refugee organizations;
  2. Call upon all funders and particularly the federal government to provide financial resources for community-based organizations to continue to improve and expand research activities on immigrant/refugee service delivery;
  3. Continue to provide at the semiannual consultation a forum for community-based organizations to present the results of and exchange information on the various research activities across the different regions.
Res.: 15 , Jun 1994
  1. At the refugees and development sessions there was considerable interest in continued activity around these issues;
  2. A significant barrier to coordinated assistance to refugees and the internally displaced in countries of asylum/origin is the separation of responsibilities and different funding criteria within departments and between government ministries;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Continue to organize sessions on international refugee and development issues;
  2. Investigate initiating dialogue with CIDA, Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Finance to discuss the overlapping responsibilities/ funding criteria relating to refugee relief and development assistance.
Res.: 20 , Jun 1994
  1. The crisis in Rwanda persists and a special workshop on the subject was requested at the CCR conference;
  2. The genocide and massacres which began on April 6 have to date caused 500,000 victims and displaced more than 2,000,000 people and the numbers are continuing to grow;
  3. Inordinate numbers of refugees are pouring into the countries neighbouring Rwanda;
  4. The people of Rwanda are suffering a humanitarian tragedy and a social and economic crisis without historical precedent;
  5. The UN forces left Rwanda just as the genocide was launched, leaving the civilian population at risk, thus encouraging the army and the militia to massacre and calling into question their credibility
  6. There is considerable media misinformation suggesting that the war in Rwanda is ethnic, while in fact it is political;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Urge the government of Canada to:

    1. support our request for an impartial international or regional inquiry into the events which led to the genocide of the Rwandan people;
    2. support appropriate measures to ensure that following such an inquiry those responsible for the massacres are judged and punished, whether in Rwanda, here or in another country;
    3. support appropriate measures to establish a democratic government of national unity and to ensure respect for human rights, in the spirit of the Arusha Accord;
    4. continue its generous humanitarian aid to the Rwandan people;
    5. study and discuss the problem of how the local personnel employed by Canadian organizations or government were abandonned when Canadian expatriates were evacuated, in order to ensure that such a situation does not happen again;
    6. reject the imposition of conditions on the participation of Canadian forces in the UN troops, according to which 5,500 troops are to be brought together in Rwanda;
    7. implement special measures with simple and clear criteria to offer protection in Canada for those with family or other links with Canadians of Rwandan origin and to refuse visas and landing to previously identified criminals;
    8. cease all non-justified removals of Rwandans in Canada;
  2. Request its members to educate the Canadian public on the origins as well as the solutions to the current crisis in Rwanda;
  3. Request the Canadian government to finalize an urgent special procedure to collect unaccompanied orphaned minors whose sole remaining relatives are in Canada; i.e. Canadians of Rwandan origin whatever their eligibility for existing sponsorship programmes (humanitarian cases).
Res.: 23 , Jun 1994
  1. Aung San Su Kyi remains under house arrest following her victory in the democratic elections of 1989
  2. The SLORC continues to disregard human rights and the outcome of the 1989 democratic elections;
  3. Since 1988 large numbers of Burmese nationals have been both internally and externally displaced;
  4. The Royal Thai government is failing to provide protection to Burmese nationals and their conditions continue to deteriorate;
  5. International attention and pressure have been conspicuously absent;
  6. There is both an overseas need and a sponsorship interest in increasing the current immigration levels;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Petition the Government of Canada to request the Government of Thailand:

    1. to honour their responsibilities to provide safe asylum to Burmese nationals; and
    2. to issue exit visas to Burmese nationals upon completion of Canadian immigration processing;
  2. Petition the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to increase the number of government sponsorships to at least double the current seventy-five positions and in addition appropriate one-third of the contingency allocation in recognition of the urgency of the situation;
  3. Urge the Government of Canada to use all means at its disposal to pressure the Burmese (Myanmar) SLORC to restore human rights and to honour its own democratic process and the outcome of the election of 1989;
  4. Request the Government of Canada to provide human resource development opportunities to Burmese refugees in neighbouring countries as they await restoration of human rights and the democratic process in Burma.
Res.: 41 , Jun 1994

Meaningful evaluation requires the participation of major stakeholders (clients, agencies and funders) in the evaluation process, including the development of national and local evaluation tools;

Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR Executive in discussion with funders at the next roundtable meeting determine how these major stakeholders will work together in the development of evaluation tools, including national performance indicators.

Res.: 28 , Jun 1994
  1. The IRB was originally designed in principle to be a non-adversarial adjudicative tribunal;
  2. The IRB has departed from this founding principle and has devolved into an adversarial process;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR strongly endorse the position contained in the Rebuilding Trust report by James Hathaway that the IRB return and adhere to the principle of being a non-adversarial tribunal of inquiry into Convention refugee claims.

Res.: 3 , Jun 1994
  1. All social service agencies (mainstream and non-governmental) hold as fundamental principles that services must meet the specific needs of the populations served and that clients have the right to self-determination;
  2. All social services must respect the clients' choice as to the most appropriate service delivery system and offer diverse models of services to meet these individual needs;
  3. The understanding of settlement needs of immigrants and refugees has developed significantly over the past 10 years and has responded to the reality that newcomers' adjustment is of varying length depending on a variety of factors, which include language, cultural, social supports and integration, etc;
  4. Non-governmental settlement service agencies have evolved in meeting these needs and have developed a very comprehensive and specialized knowledge base for service delivery;
  5. Mainstream services are only beginning to address the issue of access to services by an increasingly diverse population;
  6. The accessibility and adequacy of such services are only in the developmental stages and these service agencies are still struggling with their internal adjustments to personnel and organizational change;
  7. Historically, non-governmental settlement services have not only been pioneers but have been providing leadership in developing settlement services to a constantly changing population;
  8. Mainstream social services are increasingly calling on the expertise of non-governmental settlement services to assist them in their transition to providing more accessible and culturally appropriate services to a population that they have not served in the past;
  9. Non-governmental settlement services have been meeting, and will continue to meet the needs for service in this area;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR communicate to the appropriate governmental and social service bodies at every possible opportunity that:

  1. Non-governmental settlement services are an integral part of the social service delivery system and that the expertise of these services must be fully recognized;
  2. Non-governmental settlement services must have equal access to funding for social services; 3. Ongoing funding must be made available to ensure continuity of services and to maintain quality of services through appropriate resources for planning, delivery and evaluation.
Res.: 33 , Jun 1994
  1. The CCR passed a resolution in May 1993 supporting the initiative of the National Network of Torture Survivor Centres to develop a code of procedures for the treatment of survivors who are refugee claimants;
  2. The CCR remains concerned about the plight of torture survivors in the refugee determination process;
  3. The CCR has been consulted in the preparation of the proposed code of procedures;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Endorse the proposed code of procedures for torture survivors;
  2. Assist the National Network in encouraging the IRB and the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to study the code and to consult interested parties and to thereby formally create a legally enforceable code of procedures for the treatment of torture survivors.
Res.: 8 , Jun 1994
  1. The settlement and adaptation process has been recognised in the Report "After the Door has been Opened" to have significant mental health aspects;
  2. The federal Ministries of Human Resources, Citizenship and Immigration, Canadian Heritage, and Health are concerned with the successful settlement of Immigrants and refugees;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR request that:

  1. The above mentioned Federal ministries continue to implement the recommendations of the report "After the Door Has Been Opened";
  2. These Ministries pay particular attention to and review the mental health effects of their policies;
  3. These Ministries urge the Provincial Ministries of Health to recognise cross cultural mental health counselling by including costs for these services under the Provincial Health Plans.
Res.: 38 , Jun 1994
  1. Section 49 (1) of the Immigration Act provides for stay of execution of removal orders when a rejected refugee claimant makes an application for leave to appeal to the Federal Court;
  2. Section 49 (1.1) of the Immigration Act provides that there is no stay for persons "residing or sojourning in the United States" where a section 20 (border) report was made on that person;
  3. The Immigration department is purporting to apply section 49(1.1) to persons who have been residing in Canada for more than one year, telling them to leave while their application for leave to appeal is still before the Federal Court;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR demand that the government cease the practice of removing refugee claimants residing in Canada who entered Canada from the United States and whose applications for leave to appeal are before the Federal Court.

Res.: 13 , Jun 1994
  1. Under the current era of fiscal restraint and funding cutbacks, agencies are being encouraged to enter into collaborative efforts for service delivery;
  2. The criteria for establishing collaborative efforts has been only loosely developed;
  3. The attempt to forge effective, equitable collaborative efforts has met with little, if any, success;
  4. The funding allocated to conjoint projects is never adequate to allow organizations to engage in a process of development;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR:

  1. Bring to the attention of funders, particularly the federal government and specifically the funders participating in the Culturally Appropriate Social Services Conference in Montreal, June 5 - 7, the need to allocate sufficient funds for the development process of forging equitable collaborative efforts between mainstream and community-based organizations including, but not limited to, the criteria for equitable power-sharing;
  2. Call upon the mainstream organizations to join in the effort of making the development process a reality for forging meaningful, equitable collaborative efforts.
Res.: 9 , Nov 1993
  1. Canada Immigration repeatedly notes in dialogue with the UNHCR that there are not enough sponsors for Women at Risk cases;
  2. Master Agreement holders have developed the expertise to resettle refugee women at risk and have reported that requests to Canada Immigration Centres for unnamed Women at Risk cases have not been met;
  3. Immigration further says that UNHCR does not refer cases in some regions and in regions where there are referrals the cases do not always meet Canada's narrow eligibility and admissibility criteria;
  4. UNHCR cannot refer emergency cases, particularly refugee women who could come pursuant to the Women at Risk Programme, to Canada due to extremely slow processing times. However, European countries who are without a specific Women at Risk Programme are known for processing emergency cases of refugee women at risk within 24 hours to one week;
Therefore be it resolved:

That, to show that Master Agreement holders are committed to the Women at Risk Programme:

  1. The CCR Working Group on Overseas Protection and Sponsorship (OPS) establish terms of reference by December 1993 for the processing of refugee women under a Five Year Women at Risk Sponsorship Plan;
  2. The CCR write all Master Agreement holders by January 1994 asking for a commitment to UNHCR-referred Women at Risk cases over the next five years;
  3. The OPS follow up with all Master Agreement holders with regard to their sponsorship commitments in February and March 1994, and compile information by April 1994 on commitments that have been made.
  4. The OPS on behalf of Master Agreement holders work out an implementation plan with the UNHCR and Immigration with regard to the Five Year Women at Risk Sponsorship Plan.
Res.: 14 , Nov 1993
  1. From mid-August to early September, Canada asked Somali asylum-seekers in Kenya having close links to Canada (including brothers and sisters), to identify themselves for the Canadian resettlement program;
  2. This raised high expectations among residents in the southeastern camps where the notices appeared;
  3. Somali Canadians have as a result been pressured by relatives in these camps to put in undertakings;
  4. This has caused great frustration in the community for those unable to make these commitments. In addition, the fact that the CIC officers knew nothing of these notices, and denied their existence, added confusion to frustration;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR strongly urge the Department of Citizenship and Immigration to honour the promise implicit in these notices, and facilitate the entry to Canada of parents and their dependent children through the government sponsorship process, where the family in Canada is not yet sufficiently settled to place an undertaking of assistance.

Res.: 22 , Nov 1993
  1. There is now available a draft memorandum of understanding between Canada and the U.S. to provide for the allocation of determination of refugee claims between the two countries;
  2. This draft memorandum has not been signed and may be changed if the governments of the two countries agree;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR ask the governments of the U.S. and Canada to amend the memorandum of understanding to incorporate the following changes:

  1. Country of Determination
    1. The country of determination should be the one chosen by the claimant.
    2. If the rule of country of choice is not accepted, and the rule of first arrival remains, the rule of first arrival should not apply in every case.
    3. Where the claimant has a family member in one state, and the country of first arrival is another, the claimant should be free to choose between the country of first arrival and the country where the family member is present.
    4. "Present" for this purpose means physically present. It would cover family members who have no status in the country of choice, but are only there for the purpose of making a refugee claim.
    5. Family member, for this purpose, means both the family class and assisted relatives.
    6. Where the claimant has a visa for one state and the country of first arrival is another, then the claimant should be able to choose between the country of first arrival and the country of visa issuance.
    7. Where the claimant has been lawfully present in the country of second arrival at any time prior to the claim, the claimant should be able to choose the country of claim.
    8. A country of transit should not be considered a country of first arrival.
  2.   Safeguards
    1. The parties should agree to apply minimum standards of procedural fairness in the determination of refugee claims. The agreed minimum standards would be listed in the memorandum.
    2. The parties should agree not to deter the making or maintaining of refugee claims either by detention or by any other means.
  3.   Access
    1. The parties should each agree to grant access to its refugee determination system on the merits of the claim to every person allocated under this agreement.
    2. The undertaking to examine claims should include persons who are at the border as well as persons who are in the country.
  4. Confidentiality
    1. Any information exchanged under this agreement about individuals should be considered confidential and may not be passed on to any third party.
    2. Any information about an individual that is exchanged under this agreement must be accessible to that individual without regard to any exclusion that may exist in the privacy legislation of either country about information exchanged between governments.
  5. Appeals
    1. The parties should establish a joint appeal tribunal to consider and decide on appeals from persons whose determination of claims have been allocated under this agreement, and who have been denied refugee recognition.
    2. The appeal tribunal should be a judicial body independent from both governments.
    3. Access to the tribunal should be subject to an admissibility requirement. The tribunal should be able to consider any appeal from a person allocated under the memorandum where there is a reasonable possibility that the determination would have been different if the claim had been in the other country.
    4. The appeal tribunal should have the power to reverse a negative determination and determine the person to be a refugee.
    5. The appeal tribunal would also have a power to decide disputes between the two state parties or between claimants and a state party on the country of allocation.
  6. Third Countries
    1. Removal of a person allocated under this agreement to a third country should not be possible unless the claimant has a right to have his/her claim considered on the merits in the third country.
    2. Removal of a person allocated under this agreement to a third country should not be possible unless there is an agreement with the third country that incorporates all the provisions that are in this memorandum.
  7. Status of the Memorandum
    1. The memorandum should be a legally binding agreement between the state parties enforceable by refugee claimants.
    2. The parties should undertake to provide to claimants free access to the courts of their countries for the enforcement of this agreement.
    3. All international human rights or refugee protection instruments by which a signatory state may be bound, including the Geneva Convention for the Protection of Refugees and Protocol, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Charter of the Organization of American States, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention against Torture, should be respected in the application of this memorandum by that signatory state. In case of conflict between an international human rights or refugee instrument by which a signatory state is bound and this memorandum, the international human rights or refugee instrument should predominate.
  8. Quotas
    1. Except in the case of a claimant whose claim has already been determined on its merits by one of the signatory states, each party should not, in any year, invoke the memorandum of agreement to allocate determination of a claim until after that country has accepted for determination on the merits a minimum number of refugee claims. The minimum for Canada should be 30,000.
  9. A Coordinating Committee
    1. A Coordinating Committee should be established, to consist of representatives of Canada, the U.S., non-governmental organizations, and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. The Committee would be responsible for supervising the administration of the memorandum. The Committee would set the minimum numbers that would have to be reached to make the memorandum operational.
Res.: 27 , Nov 1993
  1. The CCR has prepared a report, dated October 18, 1993, reviewing the serious problems with the Post-Determination Refugee Claimant in Canada Class (PDRCCC);
  2. The post determination review process under the current regulations has resulted in an acceptance rate of less than one percent and this process is wholly unsatisfactory to the NGO community and unfair to the refugee claimants;
  3. The regulations adopted to define this process are unduly restrictive and do not permit many worthy cases to be considered fairly;
  4. The CCR has received evidence of instances which may amount to cruel or inhuman or degrading treatment of victims of torture and other persons of concern to members;
Therefore be it resolved:


  1. The CCR call for an independent and impartial inquiry into this treatment;
  2. The CCR demand that the government revise the criteria for the review process so that the immigration officials' discretion not be unduly fettered and normal humanitarian considerations be addressed;
  3. The CCR ask that the government make a clear commitment not to deport torture victims, and particularly victims of rape, unless there be clear and imperative reasons to deport these persons related to serious criminality;
  4. The CCR request that the evaluation under the post-determination review be completely separated from the officials in charge of deportation and that the review officers receive proper training in Canada's international obligations;
  5. The CCR call upon the government to address in an effective and open fashion all the concerns raised by the recent report by the CCR.
Res.: 7 , Nov 1993
  1. Persons accepted on humanitarian and compassionate grounds must meet the admissibility criteria as set out in Section 19 of the Immigration Act;
  2. According to Section 19(1)(b) of the Act, anyone who represents a burden on society, among others women who receive social assistance, is inadmissible as an immigrant;
  3. This clause is seriously prejudicial to single mothers and other women who have parental responsibilities for children they have in their care, who have been accepted on humanitarian grounds, or who would have been accepted were it not for this provision;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR request the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to take measures so that the Immigration officers not consider Section 19(1)(b) of the Act when establishing whether a single mother, or other woman who has parental responsibilities for children in her care, meets the admissibility criteria.

Res.: 12 , Nov 1993
  1. CCR Resolution 6, May 1993, called on the Canadian embassy in Ankara to recognize the risk to the lives of Kurdish refugees and expedite their resettlement in Canada;
  2. There are approximately 400 Iraqi refugees identified by the UNHCR who are living in wretched conditions in camps in Turkey even though they were accepted by Canada over one year ago;
  3. Medicals are beginning to expire as a result of the long delays;
  4. These people have not been considered for resettlement in other countries because of their acceptance by Canada;
  5. Tension in camps is rising and there is fear of refoulement;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR contact the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration exhorting Canada to let all of these already accepted refugees depart for Canada immediately.

Res.: 15 , Nov 1993
  1. The government has announced that it will no longer offer full immigrant processing at all visa posts and will centralize immigrant processing worldwide;
  2. There is already a limited number of visa posts with full immigration consulars;
  3. This creates hardships particularly in affected countries and more particularly creates hardships for women who are restricted financially and socially from accessing these posts;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR contact government officials to express its concern over the reorganization, pointing out the negative impact in limiting access particularly for women.

Res.: 20 , Nov 1993
  1. 85% percent of the world refugee population are women and children and the number of refugee children exceeds 10 million;
  2. Refugee children are the most vulnerable sector of refugees all over the globe;
  3. Refugee girls are persecuted for their gender and refugee children bear responsibilities for childcare and for parenting of younger children;
  4. Refugee children suffer regular violations in camps which rarely gain attention and condemnation in the media, including hard physical labour, malnutrition, epidemics, rape and are deprived of adequate schooling and education opportunities;
  5. Unaccompanied children and minors suffer detention in many countries;
  6. The defense and protection of refugee children has not received adequate attention in educational material and international legal conventions;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR take action with the Canadian government and relevant international organizations to:

  1. Call for an international legal instrument for the protection of refugee children as a supplement to the Geneva Convention and Protocols;
  2. Call for an increase in relief aid and educational resources to refugee children, especially those in camp situations;
  3. Increase the numbers of unaccompanied minors resettled in western countries, after suitable efforts at family reunification have been exhausted;
  4. Demand an end to the detention of refugee children and call for the use of other more humane mechanisms to accommodate these children;
  5. Call for measures to eradicate prostitution, rape, female genital mutilation and other abuses in refugee camps, and for resources to be made available to assist in the healing of children victimized by these abuses;
  6. Call for humane measures concerning international adoptions of refugee children.
Res.: 25 , Nov 1993
  1. The Federal Court of Appeal recognized in the Cheung case that a woman fearing forced sterilization in P.R.C. is a member of a social group and a Convention refugee;
  2. In a subsequent decision, the Chan case, the Federal Court of Appeal maintained, with a dissent, that a man fearing forced sterilization is not a member of a social group and is not a Convention refugee;
  3. This latter decision is pending leave to appeal before the Supreme Court of Canada;
  4. This latter decision has the effect of restricting the scope of the definition of social group as developed by the Supreme Court in the Ward case;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR intervene in this case if leave is granted, subject to availability of funds.

Res.: 5 , Nov 1993
  1. The intent of training is to improve the quality and accessibility of settlement service delivery for immigrants and refugees by improving the skills of settlement workers;
  2. The demand for training in all regions of the country is increasing;
  3. Training programs do not exist in most parts of the country, and where they do exist they are underfunded;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR play a leading role in advocating to the federal government for the expansion of existing and the creation of new funding programs for settlement training.

Res.: 10 , Nov 1993
  1. The United Nations persuaded the Kurds of Northern Iraq to return to their homeland;
  2. The current food, medicine and electricity shortages as well as the "double embargo" are all combining to cause great suffering to the people of Iraqi Kurdistan, and to create sentiments of frustration and distrust of the allied forces among some of the Kurds;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the CCR request the Department of External Affairs to urge the United Nations to ensure that adequate economic aid is given to the people of Iraqi Kurdistan to ensure that basic needs are met, thereby promoting greater overall stability in the region.

Res.: 18 , Nov 1993
  1. Anti-personnel land mines that detonate on contact are indiscriminate weapons that remain hidden and lethal long after the end of a conflict;
  2. Anti-personnel mines have killed or mutilated tens of thousands of civilians and rendered large tracts of agricultural and pastoral land unusable, preventing the subsistence and economic development of rural populations;
  3. In most countries women and children are especially affected as direct victims through their agricultural and pastoral work or through death and disabling of their husbands and fathers;
  4. The 1981 United Nations Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby traps and other Devices has failed to prevent the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel mines but unfortunately international law permits the use of land mines to achieve "defensive" military objectives;
  5. The CCR adopted Resolution 14 at the Consultation in Winnipeg in November 1992 calling for Canada to ratify the Land Mines Protocol and to press other states of the United Nations to do likewise;
  6. Land mines remain an obstacle to the durable solution of voluntary repatriation for refugees;
Therefore be it resolved:


  1. The CCR join a growing number of organizations including Handicap International, Human Rights Watch, Medico International, Mines Advisory Group, Physicians for Human Rights and the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation in a joint call for:
    1. An international ban on the use, production, stockpiling, and sale, transfer or export of antipersonnel mines;
    2. The establishment of an international fund, administered by the United Nations, to promote and finance landmine awareness, clearance and eradication programs worldwide;
    3. Countries responsible for the production and dissemination of anti-personnel mines to contribute to the international fund;
  2. The CCR call on the government of Canada to support and promote an international ban on the use, production, stockpiling, and sale, transfer or export of antipersonnel mines;
  3. The CCR urge the government of Canada to support and promote the establishment of an international fund, administered by the United Nations, to promote and finance landmine awareness, clearance and eradication programs worldwide;
  4. The CCR call on the government of Canada to urge countries responsible for the production and dissemination of anti-personnel mines to contribute to the international fund.
Res.: 28 , Nov 1993
  1. The Executive Committee of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees is the only intergovernmental body in the U.N. system which has responsibility specifically for the international protection of refugees;
  2. The denial of fairness of refugee determination procedures can lead to the rejection of real refugees in error;
  3. Refugee determination procedures in signatory states to the Refugee Convention vary widely, and often do not provide for fairness in refugee determination;
Therefore be it resolved:

That the Canadian Council for Refugees calls on the Government of Canada and the International Council of Voluntary Agencies to request that the Executive Committee of the UNHCR approve and open for signature an international agreement on minimum procedural standards for considering refugee claims.